2nd Report, 2013 (Session 4): The Impact of Welfare Reform on Scotland

SP Paper 303

WR/S4/13/R2

2nd Report, 2013 (Session 4)

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Scotland

Remit and membership

Remit:

To keep under review the passage of the UK Welfare Reform Bill and monitor its implementation as it affects welfare provision in Scotland and to consider relevant Scottish legislation and other consequential arrangements.

Membership:

Annabelle Ewing
Linda Fabiani
Iain Gray
Jamie Hepburn (Deputy Convener)
Alex Johnstone
Michael McMahon (Convener)
Kevin Stewart

Committee Clerking Team:

Clerk to the Committee
Simon Watkins

Assistant Clerk
Catherine Fergusson

Committee Assistant
Kevin Dougan

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Scotland

The Committee reports to the Parliament as follows—

1. In October 2012, the Committee commissioned research on the impact of welfare reform on Scotland from the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research at Sheffield Hallam University.

2. The research is attached as Annexe A to this report.

ANNEXE A: THE IMPACT OF WELFARE REFORM ON SCOTLAND - RESEARCH REPORT

THE IMPACT OF WELFARE REFORM ON SCOTLAND

Christina Beatty and Steve Fothergill

Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research
Sheffield Hallam University

April 2013

Report commissioned by the Scottish Parliament

The GB-wide research on which the report is based was also funded by Sheffield Hallam University and by the Financial Times (by a grant from the Pulitzer Centre on Crisis Reporting in Washington).

Note on the authors

Christina Beatty is a Professor in the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) at Sheffield Hallam University, and a statistician by background.

Steve Fothergill is also a Professor within CRESR at Sheffield Hallam University, and an economist by background.

Both authors have an extensive record of research and publication on local and regional trends across the UK, and on the benefits system. Their recent reports include Incapacity benefit reform: the local, regional and national impact and The Real Level of Unemployment 2012.

Key points

  • When the present welfare reforms have come into full effect they will take more than £1.6bn a year out of the Scottish economy. This is equivalent to around £480 a year for every adult of working age.
  • The biggest financial losses arise from reforms to incapacity benefits (£500m a year), changes to Tax Credits (£300m a year) and the 1 per cent up-rating of most working-age benefits (£290m a year).
  • The Housing Benefit reforms will result in more modest losses – an estimated £50m a year arising from the ‘bedroom tax’ for example – but for the households affected the sums are nevertheless still large.
  • Some households and individuals, notably sickness and disability claimants, will be hit by several different elements of the reforms.
  • Although the financial losses are very large the scale of the loss in Scotland, measured per adult of working age, is broadly on a par with the GB average. Overall, the welfare reforms hit Scotland less than northern England or Wales, but more than much of southern England.
  • Within Scotland, however, the local authorities covering the poorest areas are hit hardest. As a general rule, the more deprived the local authority, the greater the financial hit. Several of Scotland’s older industrial areas, in particular, are hit especially hard.
  • Glasgow faces the biggest loss, in absolute terms and on a per capita basis. Its residents can expect to lose around £270m a year in benefit income, equivalent to £650 a year for every adult of working age in the city.
  • A key effect of the welfare reforms will be to widen the gaps in prosperity between the best and worst local economies in Scotland.

THE IMPACT OF WELFARE REFORM ON SCOTLAND

Scope and purpose of the report

The Westminster Government is implementing welfare reforms that apply to all parts of the UK. The impact of the reforms, however, will vary enormously from place to place, not least because benefit claimants are so unevenly spread across Britain.

This report looks specifically at the impact of the reforms on Scotland. It provides figures for Scotland as a whole and for each of its 32 constituent local authorities. The report also draws comparisons with the rest of the UK. Separate figures are presented for each of the major benefit reforms and for their overall impact. The figures cover the number of households or individuals affected, and the total financial loss to each local area.

All the figures presented in the report are estimates, but in every case they are deeply rooted in official statistics – for example in the Treasury’s own estimates of the financial savings, the Westminster government’s Impact Assessments, and benefit claimant data.

Welfare reform is a deeply contentious issue and in documenting the impacts the report does not attempt to comment on the merits of each of the reforms. However, it is important that the impact on different places is fully exposed because this is a key dimension that is too often overlooked. The impact on different places is also one of the yardsticks by which the reforms should be judged.

The welfare reforms

The figures presented in the report cover all the major welfare reforms that are currently underway. In brief, these are:

Housing Benefit – Local Housing Allowance
Changes to the rules governing assistance with the cost of housing for low-income households in the private rented sector. The new rules apply to rent levels, ‘excess’ payments, property size, age limits for sole occupancy, and indexation for inflation.

Housing Benefit – Under-occupation
Changes to the rules governing the size of properties for which payments are made to working age claimants in the social rented sector (widely known as the ‘bedroom tax’)

Non-dependant deductions
Increases in the deductions from Housing Benefit, Council Tax Benefit and other income-based benefits to reflect the contribution that non-dependant household members are expected to make towards the household’s housing costs

Household benefit cap
New ceiling on total payments per household, applying to the sum of a wide range of benefits for working age claimants

Disability Living Allowance
Replacement of DLA by Personal Independence Payments (PIP), including more stringent and frequent medical tests, as the basis for financial support to help offset the additional costs faced by individuals with disabilities

Incapacity benefits
Replacement of Incapacity Benefit and related benefits by Employment and Support Allowance (ESA), with more stringent medical tests, greater conditionality and time-limiting of non-means tested entitlement for all but the most severely ill or disabled

Child Benefit
Three-year freeze, and withdrawal of benefit from households including a higher earner

Tax Credits
Reductions in payment rates and eligibility for Child Tax Credit and Working Families Tax Credit, paid to lower and middle income households

1 per cent up-rating
Reduction in annual up-rating of value of most working-age benefits

A fuller description of each of these reforms, including the timing of implementation and the expected savings to the Exchequer, is contained in the appendix to the report.

The vast majority of these welfare reforms have been initiated by the present Coalition government in Westminster, notably but not exclusively through the Welfare Reform Act 2012. Some of the incapacity benefit reforms, however, are Labour measures that pre-date the 2010 general election but are only now taking full effect. They have been included here, alongside the Coalition’s reforms, to provide a comprehensive view of the impact of the reforms that are currently underway.

The figures the report presents show the impact when the reforms have come into full effect. This is important because some of the reforms, particularly those affecting incapacity and disability benefits, are being implemented in stages over a number of years. In most cases, the figures show the expected impact in the 2014-15 financial year1.

A close observer of the list of reforms will note a number of apparent omissions. The most significant of these is Universal Credit, which is scheduled to replace just about all means-tested working age benefits and is arguably the single biggest reform of all. There are three reasons for omitting Universal Credit:

  • Universal Credit is best understood as a repackaging of existing benefits. It introduces for the first time a consistent benefit withdrawal rate, intended to ensure that claimants are always financially better off in work, but the rules governing eligibility are essentially carried over from the existing benefits it replaces.
  • Unlike the other welfare reforms covered here, Universal Credit is not expected to result in a net reduction in benefit entitlement. At the level of the individual or household there will winners and losers but on balance Universal Credit is expected to result in slightly higher expenditure, particularly as transitional relief will be available to existing claimants transferring across.
  • Most of the impact of Universal Credit will be felt well beyond 2015. Its introduction begins in 2013 only in a small number of pilot areas and only for new claimants. The full impact is unlikely before 2018.

Additionally, without local-level household data, which is not available, it is extremely difficult to model the local impact of Universal Credit. That said, it should be noted that the intention to pay the housing element of Universal Credit to tenants, rather than direct to landlords, is a major cause of concern in the social housing sector.

Three further omissions are worth noting:

  • Council Tax Benefit. The Scottish Government has chosen not to pass on to local authorities (and thence to claimants) the Westminster Government’s 10 per cent cut in the value of Council Tax Benefit payments.
  • Income Support for lone parents. The qualifying age of the youngest child has been reduced from under 7 to under 5. The effect is to transfer the lone parent from Income Support to Jobseeker’s Allowance at the same payment rate.
  • RPI to CPI for benefits up-rating. This was introduced from 2011-12 but is really part of a much wider accounting reform, including for example all public service pensions.

When fully implemented, the welfare reforms covered in this report are expected to save the UK Treasury almost £19bn a year.

Measuring the impacts

The data sources and methods underpinning the estimates are set out in full in the appendix to the report.

The Westminster Government has in most cases not produced estimates of the local impact of the reforms. It does however publish a range of statistics that allow the local impact to be estimated. This information includes:

  • HM Treasury estimates of the overall financial saving arising from each element of the reforms, published in the Budget or in the government’s Autumn Statement. The estimates in the report are fully consistent with these Treasury figures2.
  • The Impact Assessment and (where available) Equality Impact Assessment that Westminster departments publish for each element of the reforms3
  • Benefit claimant numbers and expenditure, by local authority, published by DWP and HMRC
  • Additional official statistics – for example on median earnings by local authority to help calibrate the impact of the withdrawal of Child Benefit
  • DWP evidence from pilot schemes, in the context of the incapacity benefit reforms

As far as possible, for each benefit the figures presented in the report take account of the overall financial saving to the UK Exchequer, the distribution of benefit claimants between local authorities, and the extent to which claimants in each local authority are likely to be affected by the reforms.

In comparing the impact on different areas, the report looks in particular at the financial loss per adult of working age4. A focus on adults of working age (16-64) is appropriate because the welfare reforms impact almost exclusively on this group. By contrast, benefit claimants of pensionable age are essentially unaffected5.

Some of the welfare reforms focus on households – the reforms to Housing Benefit for example. Others – the reforms to incapacity benefits for example – are about the entitlement of individuals. Additionally, several of the reforms are likely to impact simultaneously on the same households and/or individuals. It is possible to estimate how many people are affected by each element of the reforms, and how much they lose. The financial losses can be added together but to avoid counting the same people twice the number of households/individuals affected cannot be summed to an overall total.

Finally, in estimating the impact of the welfare reforms the report holds all other factors constant. What this means in practice is that it makes no assumptions about the growth of the UK and Scottish economies, or about future levels of employment and unemployment.

Westminster ministers take the view that the welfare reforms will increase the financial incentives to take up employment and because more people will look for work more people will find work. This assumes, of course, that extra labour supply leads to extra labour demand from employers. Whether labour markets really do work in this way, especially at times of recession or low growth, or in places where the local economy is relatively weak, is a moot point and one that many economists would contest. Some individuals will undoubtedly find work to compensate for the loss of benefit income but whether the overall level of employment will be any higher as a result is questionable. More often than not, they will simply fill vacancies that would have gone to other jobseekers. So the figures in this report do not assume that loss of income from benefits will wholly or in part be replaced by additional income from employment.

The impact on Scotland

Overall impact

Table 1 shows the estimated impact of the welfare reforms on Scotland as a whole. Overall, when the reforms have come into full effect it is estimated that they will take more than £1.6bn a year out of the Scottish economy, or around £480 a year for every adult of working age.

At more than £1.6bn, this estimate of the financial impact on Scotland is substantially higher than the £780m a year (in 2015-16) identified in a report by the Scottish Local Government Forum Against Poverty6. The higher figure in the present report arises principally because it takes fuller account of the impact of reforms on payments of incapacity benefits, Tax Credits and Child Benefit. The estimate in the present report is on the other hand a little lower than the £2bn (in 2014-15) quoted in an analysis by the Scottish Government7. In this instance the difference arises principally because the Scottish Government analysis includes the effects of the switch from RPI to CPI for indexation which, as noted earlier, is a wider public sector accounting reform also affecting public service pensions.

Table 1: Impact of welfare reform on Scotland by 2014/15

  No of
h'holds/individuals
affected
Estimated
loss
£m p.a.

Average loss
per affected
h'hold/indiv
£ p.a.

No. of
h'holds/indiv
affected
per 10,000
Loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Incapacity benefits(1)(3) 144,000 500 3,480 410 145
Tax Credits 372,000 300 810 1,600 85
1 per cent uprating(3) n.a. 290 n.a. n.a. 85
Child Benefit 621,000 225 360 2,660 65
Disability Living Allowance(1)(2) 55,000 165 3,000 160 50
Housing Benefit: LHA 80,000 80 1,010 340 25
Housing Benefit: ‘bedroom tax’ 80,000 50 620 340 15
Non-dependant deductions 28,000 30 1,130 120 10
Household benefit cap 2,600 15 4,810 10 <5
Total n.a. 1,660 n.a. n.a.
480

(1 ) Individuals affected; all other data refers to households
(2) By 2017/18
(3) By 2015/16

Source: Sheffield Hallam estimates based on official data

The methods used in the present report to estimate the impact on Scotland are more sophisticated than in either of these other studies. Also, bearing in mind that the overall reduction in welfare spending across the UK (based on Treasury figures) is approaching £19bn a year, and that Scotland accounts for around 8 per cent of the UK population, the estimated financial loss to Scotland of £1.66bn a year is intuitively plausible.

The individual welfare reforms vary greatly in the scale of their impact, in the number of individuals or households affected, and in the intensity of the financial loss imposed on those affected. A great deal of media coverage has focussed on, for example, the ‘bedroom tax’ and the overall household benefit cap. In fact, in Scotland the biggest financial impact comes from the reform of incapacity benefits – an estimated loss of £500m a year. Changes to Tax Credits and the 1 per cent up-rating of most working-age benefits, taking effect from April 2013, also account for substantial sums - £300m and £290m respectively.

Child Benefit changes affect the largest number of households – more than 600,000 in Scotland. This is because the three-year freeze in Child Benefit rates up to April 2014 (instead of up-rating with inflation) impacts on all recipients.

The household benefit cap, by contrast, impacts on relatively few households in Scotland – an estimated 2,600 – but the average financial loss for each of these households is relatively large.

Sickness and disability claimants can also expect to be hit hard. The individuals adversely affected by the incapacity benefit reforms can expect to lose an average of £3,500 a year, and those losing out as a result of the changeover from Disability Living Allowance to Personal Independence Payments by an average of £3,000 a year. Often these will be the same individuals: most DLA claimants of working age are out-of-work on incapacity benefits and in both cases the groups most exposed to benefit reductions are those with less severe disabilities or health problems.

The same individuals may also find that they encounter reductions in Housing Benefit entitlement. The overall reductions in Housing Benefit in Scotland are estimated to be more modest – £80m for those in the private rented sector (affected by LHA reforms), £50m for those in the social rented sector (affected by the ‘bedroom tax’) and £30m by higher deductions for non-dependants (which mostly impact on Housing Benefit). The losses for the households affected – often £1,000 a year – are nevertheless still large.

Impact by authority

Table 2 shows the estimated overall impact by local authority of the reforms. Tables in the appendix present detailed figures for each authority, benefit by benefit.

The biggest impact in absolute terms and on a per capita basis falls on Glasgow, where the welfare reforms are estimated to result in a loss of almost £270m a year, equivalent to £650 a year for every adult of working age in the city. On per capita basis a number of other older industrial areas are also hit hard. These include Inverclyde, Dundee, West Dunbartonshire, North Lanarkshire, Clackmannanshire and North and East Ayrshire.

Table 2: Overall impact of welfare reform on Scotland by 2014/15(1), by local authority

 

Estimated
loss
£ m p.a.
Loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Glasgow 269 650
Inverclyde 33 630
Dundee 58 600
West Dunbartonshire 36 600
North Ayrshire 51 580
North Lanarkshire 123 560
Clackmannanshire 18 550
East Ayrshire 43 540
Renfrewshire 60 530
South Lanarkshire 104 510
South Ayrshire 35 500
West Lothian 57 490
Dumfries and Galloway 44 480
Fife 113 480
Midlothian 25 480
Falkirk 48 470
Argyll and Bute 24 430
East Lothian 27 430
Angus 30 410
Highland 60 410
Edinburgh 135 400
Scottish Borders 29 400
Eilean Siar 6 380
Perth and Kinross 36 380
Stirling 22 380
Moray 21 360
East Renfrewshire 20 350
Orkney Islands 5 350
East Dunbartonshire 22 340
Aberdeen 52 330
Aberdeenshire 49 300
Shetland Islands 4 290
     
Scotland 1,660 480

(1) Except DLA by 2017/18, incapacity benefits and 1% up-rating by 2015/16

Source: Sheffield Hallam estimates based on official data

Figure 1: Relationship between impact of welfare reform and deprivation, by local authority

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources: Sheffield Hallam estimates and Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2012

By contrast, the financial loss to Edinburgh – an estimated £135m, or £400 per adult of working age – is significantly smaller.

The parts of Scotland that are least affected by the reforms are in North East Scotland, Orkney and Shetland, and two relatively affluent districts (East Renfrewshire and East Dunbartonshire) in the central belt. However, it is worth noting that even in some of these local authorities the absolute losses remain large. Aberdeen, for example, can still expect to lose £50m a year.

There are no surprises in this geography. It is to be expected that welfare reforms will hit hardest in the places where welfare claimants are concentrated, which in turn tend to be the poorest areas with the highest rates of worklessness. To underline this point, Figure 1 shows the relationship between the impact of the welfare reforms (measured in terms of the loss per adult of working age) and the share of the datazones8 in each local authority in the most deprived in Scotland (from the Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2012). There is a clear and unambiguous relationship: as a general rule, the more deprived the local authority, the greater the financial hit.

Comparisons with the rest of Britain

Table 3 compares the impact of each of the welfare reforms in Scotland with the impact across Britain as a whole9. This shows that the incapacity reforms and, to a lesser extent the DLA reforms, have a greater than average impact in Scotland. This is a reflection of the high claimant rate of both these benefits in Scotland. Conversely, the LHA reforms to Housing Benefit for claimants in the private rented sector hit Scotland less severely. This is partly a reflection of the smaller scale of the Scottish private rented sector and partly the higher rent levels in and around London.

Overall, the scale of the financial loss in Scotland – measured per adult of working age – is more or less on a par with the GB average.

What should not escape note, however, is that the gap between Scotland and the GB average would have been somewhat wider – around £20 per adult of working age – if the Scottish Government had chosen to pass on the cut in Council Tax Benefit to local authorities and thence to claimants. The Scottish Government, along with the Welsh Government and a number of English local authorities, has instead opted to absorb the reduction elsewhere within its budget. As in the rest of the UK, the DWP grant to pay for Council Tax Benefit has been reduced by 10 per cent, so this element of the welfare reforms still impacts on Scotland; the difference between Scotland and parts of England is that the impact does not fall directly on claimants.

Table 3: Impact of welfare reform on Scotland by 2014/15: comparison with GB averages

 

Loss per working age adult £ p.a.

 

Scotland Great Britain
Incapacity benefits(3) 145 110
Tax Credits 85 90
1 per cent uprating(3) 85 85
Child Benefit 65 70
Disability Living Allowance(2) 50 40
Housing Benefit: LHA 25 40
Housing Benefit: ‘bedroom tax’ 15 10
Non-dependant deductions 10 10
Household benefit cap <5 5
Council Tax Benefit 0(1) 10
     
Total 480 470

(1) Reductions not passed on to claimants
(2) By 2017/18
(3) By 2015/16

Source: Sheffield Hallam estimates based on official data

Table 4: Overall impact of welfare reform by 2014/15(1): comparison with GB regions

 

Estimated
loss
£m p.a.

Loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.

North West 2,560 560
North East 940 560
Wales 1,070 550
London 2,910 520
Yorkshire and the Humber 1,690 500
West Midlands 1,740 490
Scotland 1,660 480
East Midlands 1,310 450
South West 1,440 430
East 1,490 400
South East 2,060 370
     
Great Britain 18,870 470

(1) Except DLA by 2017/18, incapacity benefits and 1% up-rating by 2015/16

Source: Sheffield Hallam estimates based on official data

Table 4 compares Scotland with Wales10 and the English regions. What is clear here is that although the financial loss to Scotland is large, on a per capita basis a number of other parts of Britain are being hit harder. Wales and the three regions of northern England all come above Scotland in this particular ranking. So does London, where the reforms to Housing Benefit, in particular, impact much more acutely. On the other hand, the remaining regions of southern and eastern England, generally regarded as covering some of the most prosperous parts of the UK, are on a per capita basis all hit less hard than Scotland.

At the level of individual local authorities, Glasgow ranks 23rd, out of 379 districts across Britain in terms of the financial loss per working age adult. This places Glasgow below Liverpool (8th) but above Birmingham (43rd) and Manchester (45th). Glasgow’s ranking would have been only a couple of places higher if the Scottish Government had chosen to pass on the reduction in Council Tax Benefit. The worst-hit place in Britain is Blackpool in North West England, at an estimated £910 a year per adult of working age, compared to £650 a year in Glasgow.

In terms of the overall financial impact of the reforms, per adult of working age, Dundee ranks 51st among GB districts, Edinburgh 238th and Aberdeen 299th.

The incapacity benefit reforms are a key driver of Glasgow’s high ranking – an estimated loss of £225 a year for every adult of working age in the city (or £94m a year), placing Glasgow 6th among all GB districts and ahead of all Britain’s other major cities. Glasgow also ranks 8th in terms of the impact of the Disability Living Allowance reforms, again ahead of all other major cities. In addition, the ‘bedroom tax’ hits hard in Glasgow – the city ranks 14th, though this time behind Liverpool and Manchester. The overall financial impact of the welfare reforms on Glasgow is diluted mainly by the modest impact of the LHA reforms affecting Housing Benefit claimants in the private rented sector, a reflection of rent levels and the relatively small scale of the private rented sector in the city, especially compared to London.

The overall scale of the financial loss in Glasgow – an estimated £269m a year when the reforms are fully implemented – is second only in Britain to Birmingham (£419m), which has a substantially larger population.

Concluding remarks

Scotland has not been singled out as the target for welfare reform. Indeed, the figures here indicate that Scotland is being hit no harder than the GB average.

Nevertheless, the impacts of the reforms on Scotland are very substantial – an estimated loss of income of more than £1.6bn a year once all the reforms have been fully implemented, or an average of £480 a year per adult of working age. For some of the individuals affected by the changes the loss of income is much, much greater.

What is also clear is that the financial losses arising from the reforms will hit the most deprived parts of Scotland hardest. Glasgow in particular, but also a number of other older industrial areas, will feel the impact most. The loss of benefit income, which is often large, will have knock-on consequences for local spending and thus for local employment, which will in turn will add a further twist to the downward spiral. A key effect of welfare reform will therefore be to widen the gaps in prosperity between the best and worst local economies across Scotland.

APPENDIX 1: Impact of individual welfare reforms by 2014/15(1), by local authority

 Housing Benefit: LHA

 

No of h'holds affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of h'holds affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 1,300 1 120 10
Aberdeenshire 1,700 2 170 10
Angus 1,700 2 330 25
Argyll and Bute 1,500 2 370 40
Clackmannanshire 700 1 320 20
Dumfries and Galloway 2,600 2 390 20
Dundee 3,900 4 560 40
East Ayrshire 2,200 2 430 25
East Dunbartonshire 900 1 230 10
East Lothian 1,100 1 260 20
East Renfrewshire 800 1 220 15
Edinburgh 9,500 15 430 45
Eilean Siar 200 <0.5 160 10
Falkirk 1,500 1 220 10
Fife 5,400 4 340 20
Glasgow 12,600 13 440 30
Highland 2,300 2 220 15
Inverclyde 1,900 2 530 30
Midlothian 1,000 1 310 20
Moray 1,000 1 250 15
North Ayrshire 3,100 3 510 30
North Lanarkshire 4,700 4 330 20
Orkney Islands 200 <0.5 190 15
Perth and Kinross 2,000 2 300 20
Renfrewshire 3,000 3 390 25
Scottish Borders 1,600 1 320 20
Shetland Islands <50 <0.5 50 5
South Ayrshire 2,300 2 470 30
South Lanarkshire 4,600 4 350 20
Stirling 800 1 220 10
West Dunbartonshire 1,200 1 290 20
West Lothian 2,500 2 350 20
         
Scotland 80,000 80 340 25

(1) Except DLA by 2017/18, incapacity benefits and 1% up-rating by 2015/16


Housing Benefit: under-occupation (‘bedroom tax’)

 

No of h'holds affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of h'holds affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 2,900 2 280 10
Aberdeenshire 1,800 1 180 5
Angus 1,400 1 270 10
Argyll and Bute 1,000 1 260 10
Clackmannanshire 900 1 420 15
Dumfries and Galloway 1,900 1 290 15
Dundee 3,100 2 450 20
East Ayrshire 2,200 1 420 15
East Dunbartonshire 700 <0.5 170 5
East Lothian 1,200 1 280 10
East Renfrewshire 600 <0.5 170 5
Edinburgh 5,900 4 260 10
Eilean Siar 300 <0.5 210 10
Falkirk 2,400 2 360 15
Fife 5,200 3 320 15
Glasgow 15,800 10 550 25
Highland 2,600 2 260 10
Inverclyde 1,500 1 420 20
Midlothian 1,100 1 340 15
Moray 900 1 230 10
North Ayrshire 2,500 2 420 20
North Lanarkshire 6,000 4 430 15
Orkney Islands 200 <0.5 170 5
Perth and Kinross 1,400 1 210 10
Renfrewshire 2,900 2 380 15
Scottish Borders 1,400 1 270 10
Shetland Islands 200 <0.5 210 10
South Ayrshire 1,600 1 310 15
South Lanarkshire 4,600 3 340 15
Stirling 1,000 1 260 10
West Dunbartonshire 2,300 1 560 25
West Lothian 2,600 2 350 15
         
Scotland 80,000 50 340 15

Non-dependant deductions

 

No of h'holds affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of h'holds affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 800 1 80 5
Aberdeenshire 700 1 60 5
Angus 500 1 100 10
Argyll and Bute 400 <0.5 100 10
Clackmannanshire 300 <0.5 130 10
Dumfries and Galloway 800 1 120 10
Dundee 1,100 1 160 15
East Ayrshire 800 1 150 10
East Dunbartonshire 300 <0.5 80 5
East Lothian 400 <0.5 100 5
East Renfrewshire 300 <0.5 80 5
Edinburgh 2,200 3 100 10
Eilean Siar 100 <0.5 120 10
Falkirk 800 1 110 10
Fife 1,800 2 110 10
Glasgow 5,100 6 180 15
Highland 1,000 1 100 10
Inverclyde 600 1 160 10
Midlothian 400 <0.5 110 10
Moray 300 <0.5 90 5
North Ayrshire 900 1 160 10
North Lanarkshire 2,100 2 150 10
Orkney Islands 100 <0.5 70 5
Perth and Kinross 500 1 80 5
Renfrewshire 1,100 1 140 10
Scottish Borders 500 1 100 10
Shetland Islands 100 <0.5 70 5
South Ayrshire 600 1 130 10
South Lanarkshire 1,800 2 130 10
Stirling 300 <0.5 90 5
West Dunbartonshire 700 1 180 15
West Lothian 900 1 120 10
         
Scotland 28,000 30 120 10

Household benefit cap

 

No of h'holds affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of h'holds affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 200 1 20 5
Aberdeenshire 100 <0.5 10 <5
Angus <50 <0.5 10 <5
Argyll and Bute <50 <0.5 <5 <5
Clackmannanshire <50 <0.5 10 5
Dumfries and Galloway <50 <0.5 10 <5
Dundee 100 1 20 5
East Ayrshire <50 <0.5 10 5
East Dunbartonshire <50 <0.5 10 5
East Lothian <50 <0.5 10 5
East Renfrewshire <50 <0.5 10 <5
Edinburgh 500 3 20 10
Eilean Siar <50 <0.5 10 <5
Falkirk 100 <0.5 10 <5
Fife 200 1 10 5
Glasgow 400 2 10 5
Highland 100 <0.5 10 <5
Inverclyde <50 <0.5 10 <5
Midlothian 100 <0.5 20 5
Moray <50 <0.5 <5 <5
North Ayrshire 100 <0.5 10 5
North Lanarkshire 100 1 10 <5
Orkney Islands - - - -
Perth and Kinross 100 <0.5 10 5
Renfrewshire 100 <0.5 10 5
Scottish Borders <50 <0.5 10 5
Shetland Islands - - - -
South Ayrshire <50 <0.5 10 5
South Lanarkshire 100 1 10 5
Stirling <50 <0.5 10 <5
West Dunbartonshire <50 <0.5 10 5
West Lothian 100 <0.5 10 5
         
Scotland 2,600 15 10 5

Disability Living Allowance

 

No of individuals affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of individuals affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 1,700 5 110 35
Aberdeenshire 1,600 5 100 30
Angus 1,000 3 140 40
Argyll and Bute 800 2 140 40
Clackmannanshire 600 2 170 50
Dumfries and Galloway 1,600 5 170 50
Dundee 1,900 6 200 60
East Ayrshire 1,400 4 180 55
East Dunbartonshire 800 2 120 35
East Lothian 800 3 130 40
East Renfrewshire 700 2 120 35
Edinburgh 3,900 12 120 35
Eilean Siar 200 1 130 40
Falkirk 1,600 5 160 50
Fife 3,400 10 150 45
Glasgow 9,300 28 220 65
Highland 2,100 6 140 40
Inverclyde 1,100 3 210 65
Midlothian 900 3 170 50
Moray 700 2 120 35
North Ayrshire 1,600 5 180 55
North Lanarkshire 4,100 12 190 55
Orkney Islands 200 0 120 35
Perth and Kinross 1,200 4 130 40
Renfrewshire 2,100 6 180 55
Scottish Borders 900 3 130 40
Shetland Islands 200 0 110 30
South Ayrshire 1,200 4 170 50
South Lanarkshire 3,600 11 180 55
Stirling 700 2 130 40
West Dunbartonshire 1,400 4 230 70
West Lothian 1,900 6 170 50
         
Scotland 55,000 165 160 50

Incapacity benefits

 

No of individuals affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of individuals affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 4,900 17 320 110
Aberdeenshire 3,600 13 220 75
Angus 2,200 8 310 110
Argyll and Bute 1,700 6 310 110
Clackmannanshire 1,800 6 530 180
Dumfries and Galloway 3,600 12 390 135
Dundee 5,200 18 540 185
East Ayrshire 3,700 13 470 165
East Dunbartonshire 1,700 6 260 90
East Lothian 2,000 7 320 110
East Renfrewshire 1,400 5 250 90
Edinburgh 10,200 36 300 105
Eilean Siar 600 2 330 115
Falkirk 4,300 15 420 145
Fife 9,400 33 400 140
Glasgow 27,200 94 650 225
Highland 5,000 17 340 115
Inverclyde 3,300 11 630 220
Midlothian 2,000 7 380 130
Moray 1,600 6 270 95
North Ayrshire 4,300 15 490 170
North Lanarkshire 11,300 39 510 180
Orkney Islands 300 1 230 80
Perth and Kinross 2,500 9 260 95
Renfrewshire 5,300 18 460 160
Scottish Borders 2,100 7 300 105
Shetland Islands 300 1 210 75
South Ayrshire 2,900 10 420 145
South Lanarkshire 9,200 32 450 155
Stirling 1,900 7 320 115
West Dunbartonshire 3,400 12 570 200
West Lothian 4,600 16 400 140
         
Scotland 144,000 500 410 145

Child Benefit

 

No of households affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of households affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen 21,700 8 2,070 55
Aberdeenshire 30,300 12 2,950 70
Angus 13,400 5 2,620 65
Argyll and Bute 9,500 3 2,410 65
Clackmannanshire 6,500 2 2,930 70
Dumfries and Galloway 16,700 5 2,530 60
Dundee 16,700 6 2,420 60
East Ayrshire 15,200 5 2,910 65
East Dunbartonshire 12,500 5 3,020 75
East Lothian 12,500 5 2,910 75
East Renfrewshire 11,400 5 3,170 85
Edinburgh 48,000 19 2,150 55
Eilean Siar 2,900 1 2,390 60
Falkirk 19,500 7 2,870 70
Fife 44,000 16 2,750 65
Glasgow 67,500 24 2,370 60
Highland 26,300 9 2,600 60
Inverclyde 10,100 3 2,810 65
Midlothian 10,700 4 3,120 70
Moray 10,600 3 2,690 60
North Ayrshire 17,000 6 2,830 70
North Lanarkshire 44,400 16 3,150 70
Orkney Islands 2,200 1 2,430 60
Perth and Kinross 16,400 6 2,500 60
Renfrewshire 21,600 8 2,800 70
Scottish Borders 12,900 4 2,510 60
Shetland Islands 2,600 1 2,730 70
South Ayrshire 12,800 5 2,560 65
South Lanarkshire 39,500 15 2,970 75
Stirling 10,200 4 2,660 65
West Dunbartonshire 11,600 4 2,910 65
West Lothian 23,600 9 3,270 75
         
Scotland 621,000 225 2,660 65

Tax Credits

 

No of households affected

Estimated loss
£m p.a.

No. of households affected
per 10,000

Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.

Aberdeen

10,300 8 980 55

Aberdeenshire

10,800 9 1,050 55

Angus

7,200 6 1,410 80

Argyll and Bute

5,400 4 1,380 80

Clackmannanshire

4,100 3 1,840 100

Dumfries and Galloway

11,400 9 1,720 100

Dundee

12,500 10 1,810 105

East Ayrshire

10,100 8 1,930 105

East Dunbartonshire

4,500 4 1,090 55

East Lothian

6,600 5 1,540 85

East Renfrewshire

4,400 4 1,230 65

Edinburgh

26,600 22 1,190 65

Eilean Siar

1,400 1 1,160 65

Falkirk

10,700 9 1,570 85

Fife

27,700 22 1,730 95

Glasgow

55,700 45 1,960 110

Highland

15,000 12 1,480 85

Inverclyde

6,800 6 1,900 105

Midlothian

6,100 5 1,790 95

Moray

5,300 4 1,350 75

North Ayrshire

12,200 10 2,020 115

North Lanarkshire

28,200 23 2,000 105

Orkney Islands

1,300 1 1,410 80

Perth and Kinross

9,300 8 1,420 80

Renfrewshire

13,400 11 1,730 95

Scottish Borders

7,200 6 1,410 85

Shetland Islands

900 1 930 50

South Ayrshire

8,000 6 1,600 95

South Lanarkshire

23,000 19 1,730 90

Stirling

4,900 4 1,280 70

West Dunbartonshire

7,800 6 1,950 105

West Lothian

13,500 11 1,870 95

 

       

Scotland

372,000 300 1,600 85

1 per cent uprating

 

No of h’holds/indiv affected Estimated loss
£m p.a.
No. of h’holds/indiv affected
per 10,000
Financial loss per
working age adult
£ p.a.
Aberdeen n.a. 8 n.a. 50
Aberdeenshire n.a. 7 n.a. 45
Angus n.a. 5 n.a. 70
Argyll and Bute n.a. 4 n.a. 75
Clackmannanshire n.a. 3 n.a. 100
Dumfries and Galloway n.a. 8 n.a. 85
Dundee n.a. 10 n.a. 105
East Ayrshire n.a. 8 n.a. 100
East Dunbartonshire n.a. 4 n.a. 55
East Lothian n.a. 5 n.a. 75
East Renfrewshire n.a. 3 n.a. 55
Edinburgh n.a. 23 n.a. 70
Eilean Siar n.a. 1 n.a. 60
Falkirk n.a. 8 n.a. 80
Fife n.a. 21 n.a. 90
Glasgow n.a. 47 n.a. 115
Highland n.a. 10 n.a. 70
Inverclyde n.a. 6 n.a. 110
Midlothian n.a. 4 n.a. 85
Moray n.a. 4 n.a. 65
North Ayrshire n.a. 10 n.a. 110
North Lanarkshire n.a. 22 n.a. 100
Orkney Islands n.a. 1 n.a. 60
Perth and Kinross n.a. 6 n.a. 70
Renfrewshire n.a. 11 n.a. 95
Scottish Borders n.a. 5 n.a. 70
Shetland Islands n.a. 1 n.a. 45
South Ayrshire n.a. 6 n.a. 90
South Lanarkshire n.a. 18 n.a. 90
Stirling n.a. 4 n.a. 65
West Dunbartonshire n.a. 6 n.a. 105
West Lothian n.a. 10 n.a. 85
         
Scotland n.a. 290 n.a. 85

Source: Sheffield Hallam estimates

APPENDIX 2: Details of statistical sources and methods

HOUSING BENEFIT: (1) LOCAL HOUSING ALLOWANCE

Rules governing assistance with the cost of housing for low-income households in the private rented sector

Nature of reforms

  • Maximum rents set at 30th percentile of local rents, rather than 50th percentile, from 2011-12
  • Caps on maximum rents for each property size, with 4-bed limit, from 2011-12
  • Abolition of £15 excess formerly retained by tenants paying below maximum LHA rent, from 2011-12
  • Increase age limit for shared room rate from 25 to 35, from January 2012
  • Switch from 30th percentile rents to CPI indexation for LHA, from 2013-14

Total estimated loss

£1,645m a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Total loss arising from 30th percentile, size caps and £15 excess (£1040m pa) allocated to local authorities on the basis of DWP estimates of the number of households affected and the average final loss (Source: DWP Impacts of Housing Benefit proposals: changes to LHA to be introduced in 2011-12)
  • Loss arising from increase in age limit for shared room rate (£215m pa) allocated to local authorities on the basis of estimates of the numbers losing and average loss per week in each authority (Source: DWP Housing Benefit equality impact assessment: increasing the shared accommodation rate age threshold to 35)
  • Loss arising from CPI indexation (£390m pa) allocated to local authorities on the basis of the number of Housing Benefit claims in the private rented sector in each authority in August 2012 (Source: DWP)
  • Number of affected households based on number of Housing Benefit claimants in August 2012 in the private rented sector in each authority and the national share receiving LHA (Source: DWP). NB All LHA recipients affected by shift to CPI indexation.

HOUSING BENEFIT: (2) UNDER-OCCUPATION

New rules governing the size of properties for which payments are made to working age claimants in the social rented sector (council and housing association)

Nature of the reform

  • Limit Housing Benefit payments to working-age households in social rented accommodation to a level reflecting the number of bedrooms justified by the size and age composition of the household, from 2013-14

Total estimated loss

£490m a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Estimated number of households affected in each region (Source: DWP Impact Assessment Housing Benefit: under-occupation of social housing, June 2012 update) allocated by region to each local authority on the basis of the number in social housing claiming Housing Benefit in August 2012 (Source: DWP)
  • Financial loss allocated to each local authority on the basis of estimated number of affected households (see above) and estimated average loss per claimant in each region (Source: DWP Impact Assessment, June 2012 update)

NON-DEPENDANT DEDUCTIONS

Deductions from Housing Benefit, Council Tax Benefit and other income-based benefits to reflect the contribution that non-dependant household members are expected to make towards the household’s housing costs.

Nature of reform

  • Up-rating the deductions in stages between April 2011 and April 2014 to reflect growth in rents and increases in Council Tax since 2001, when the deductions were frozen, and subsequent link to prices

Total estimated loss

£340m a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Estimated 300,000 claimants affected (Source: DWP Equality Impact Assessment: income-related benefits: changes to the non-dependent deduction rates) allocated on the basis of the number of Housing Benefit and Council Tax Benefit claimants in each local authority in August 2012 (Source: DWP).
  • Financial loss allocated to local authorities on the basis of the estimated numbers affected (see above)

HOUSEHOLD BENEFIT CAP

New ceiling on total payments per household applying to wide range of benefits, including Child Benefit, Child Tax Credit, Employment and Support Allowance, Housing Benefit, Incapacity Benefit, Income Support and Jobseeker’s Allowance

Nature of reforms

  • Total household benefit payments for working-age claimants capped so that workless households receive no more in benefit than the average weekly wage, after tax and national insurance, from 2013-14, administered through Housing Benefit payments

Total estimated loss

£270m a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Loss allocated to local authorities on the basis of the number of individuals in each authority in receipt of a letter notifying them that they may be affected by the benefit cap (Source: DWP)
  • National total of 56,000 households expected to be capped in 2013/14 (Source: DWP Benefit Cap (Housing Benefit regulations 2012): impact assessment for the benefit cap) allocated to local authorities in proportion to letters of notification.

COUNCIL TAX BENEFIT

Paid to households on low incomes to offset Council Tax bills, in whole or in part

Nature of the reform

  • 10 per cent reduction in expenditure by HM Treasury and transfer of responsibility for the scheme to local authorities, from 2013-14.
  • Reduction in entitlement only permitted for working-age households; entitlement of pensioner households fully protected.
  • Some local authorities in England have chosen not to pass on the reduction to claimants, in whole or in part, absorbing the cut within their budget. In Scotland and Wales the devolved administrations have made arrangements that avoid the reduction falling on claimants.

Total estimated loss

£490m a year by 2014-15 (Source: HM Treasury)
of which an estimated £340m a year is being passed on to claimants

Methods and data sources

  • Number of households affected and average weekly loss, by authority, from statistics assembled by the New Policy Institute, as updated on 7th February 2013 at www.npi.org.uk. The NPI calculations are based on information assembled from each local authority.
  • The NPI data shows that some local authorities in England have chosen not to pass on the benefit reduction to claimants, in whole or in part, absorbing the cut elsewhere within their budget. In Scotland and Wales the devolved administrations have not passed on the cut to local authorities, thereby avoiding any impact on claimants.
  • Where the NPI identifies only ‘minor changes’ the impact has been set to zero.

DISABILITY LIVING ALLOWANCE

Payments intended to help offset the additional financial costs faced by individuals of all ages with disabilities, including those both in and out of work

Nature of reform

  • Phased replacement of Disability Living Allowance (DLA) for working-age claimants by Personal Independence Payments (PIP), from 2013-14
  • Introduction of more stringent medical test and regular re-testing
  • Reduction in number of payment categories

Total estimated loss

£1,500m a year by 2017-18
(Source: DWP Impact Assessment Disability Living Allowance reform, adjusted for inflation and revised implementation timetable)

Methods and data sources

  • Anticipated reduction in national caseload of working age to 1.7m (Source: DWP Impact Assessment) represents a 23 per cent reduction in anticipated numbers in absence of reform
  • Numbers affected refer to the 23 per cent reduction in claimants, allocated on the basis of stock of working age DLA claimants in each local authority in February 2012 (Source: DWP). Additionally, a number of claimants in receipt of PIP instead of DLA may experience a reduction in payment.
  • Financial loss allocated to each local authority on basis of reduction in claimant numbers (see above)

INCAPACITY BENEFITS

Out-of-work payments to men and women of working age with health problems or disabilities, including Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) and its predecessors Incapacity Benefit, Income Support on grounds of disability, and Severe Disablement Allowance

Nature of reforms

  • Introduction of ESA for new claimants and a new, tougher medical test (the Work Capability Assessment), from October 2008
  • Applying the Work Capability Assessment to existing incapacity claimants from autumn 2010 onwards, and migration to ESA if not deemed ‘fit for work’
  • Time-limiting to 12 months non-means tested entitlement for ESA Work Related Activity Group, from 2012-13
  • New conditionality for ESA Work Related Activity Group

Total estimated loss

£4,350m a year by 2015-16, comprising:

  • ·£2,600m a year from time limiting of non-means tested entitlement
    (Source: HM Treasury estimates for 2014-15, revised to take account of inflation and additional numbers affected by 2015-16)
  • c. £1,750m a year from remaining measures
    (see below)

Methods and data sources

  • By 2015-16, an estimated 700,000 will be affected by time limiting non-means tested ESA entitlement. Of these, 40 per cent are anticipated to lose benefit entirely and the remaining 60 per cent will experience a reduction in payment (Source: DWP Impact Assessment Time limit contributory Employment and Support Allowance to one year for those in the Work-Related Activity Group).
  • By 2014 an additional 550,000 are estimated to be denied ESA by other elements of the reforms, of which 30 per cent will not claim alternative benefits (Source: Beatty and Fothergill 2011, Incapacity benefit reform: the local regional and national impact, CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University).
  • Numbers affected by local authority allocated on the basis of methods in Beatty and Fothergill (2011) based primarily on DWP claimant data, DWP impact assessments and DWP evidence from pilot areas.
  • Financial loss arising from time limiting allocated in 3:1 ratio between those losing benefit entirely and those retaining benefit at reduced rate, on the basis of estimated numbers in each group by local authority.
  • Financial loss arising from other elements of the reforms estimated to be two-thirds that arising from time limiting, given of numbers affected and proportion expected to be denied benefits. (Treasury or DWP estimates have not been published). Loss allocated in 2:1 ratio between those denied benefit entirely and those claiming other benefits at a lower rate, on the basis of estimated numbers in each group by local authority.

CHILD BENEFIT

Paid to households on the basis of the number of children up to age 16 or, if they remain at school or in further education, up to 19

Nature of reforms

  • Freeze benefit rates for three years from 2011-12, instead of up-rate with inflation
  • Withdrawal of benefit from households including a higher earner (threshold at £50,000 and taper to £60,000), from January 2013

Total estimated loss

£2,845m a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Numbers of families in receipt of Child Benefit, by local authority in August 2011, from HMRC (Source: HMRC Child Benefit Statistics: geographical analysis). NB All recipients affected by freeze.
  • Financial loss arising from freeze (£975m pa) allocated on basis of number of families in receipt of Child Benefit in each local authority (see above)
  • Financial loss arising from withdrawal of benefit from high earners (£1,870m pa) allocated on basis of number of families in receipt of Child Benefit multiplied by an index of median earnings in the three years 2010, 2011 and 2012 of residents in each local authority relative to the UK average (Source: Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings). County averages used where earnings data for districts is unavailable.

TAX CREDITS

Payments through the tax system of Child Tax Credit (CTC) and Working Families Tax Credit (WFTC) to lower and middle income households

Nature of reforms

  • Adjustments to thresholds, withdrawal rates, supplements, income disregards and backdating provisions, from 2011-12 onwards
  • Changes in indexation and up-rating, from 2011-12 onwards
  • Reductions in childcare element of WFTC, from 2011-12
  • Increase in working hours requirement for WFTC, from 2012-13

Total estimated loss

£3,660m (net) a year by 2014-15
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Overall loss allocated on the basis of the total number of families in receipt of CTC or WFTC in December 2012, by local authority (Source: HMRC Child and Working Tax Credits Statistics: geographical analysis)
  • All families in receipt of CTC or WFTC affected by one or more of the changes

1 PER CENT UP-RATING

Annual up-rating of value of benefits

Nature of reform

  • 1 per cent up-rating (instead of by CPI) for three years from 2013-14 for main working-age benefits, and for two years from 2014-15 for Child Benefit and for Local Housing Allowance within Housing Benefit

Total estimated loss

£3,430m a year by 2015-16
(Source: HM Treasury)

Methods and data sources

  • Total loss divided equally between DWP-administrated benefits and HMRC-administrated benefits (Child Benefit, CTC, WFTC), reflecting split of overall expenditure on relevant benefits (Sources: DWP and HMRC)
  • HMRC benefits loss allocated on basis of total number of families in receipt of CTC or WFTC in December 2012, (Source: HMRC Child and Working Tax Credits: geographical analysis)
  • DWP benefits loss divided 75:25 between working age benefits and Housing Benefit, reflecting split of overall expenditure on relevant benefits (Source: DWP)
  • DWP working age benefits loss allocated on basis of non-employed working age benefit numbers in February 2012, by local authority (Source: DWP)
  • Housing Benefit loss allocated on basis of estimated expenditure on claimants in the private rented sector, by local authority, derived from overall Housing Benefit expenditure data for 2011/12 and share of claimants in the private rented sector in August 2012 (Sources: DWP)

Footnotes:

1 The exceptions are the DLA reforms, which will not impact fully until 2017-18, and the wider application of means testing to ESA and the 1 per cent up-rating, both of which do not impact fully until 2015-16.

2 The estimates of the impact of the reforms to incapacity benefits, DLA and Council Tax Benefit are subject to further detailed adjustment – see appendix.

3 Following official practice in the Impact Assessments, the estimates in the present report make no allowance for the small share of the financial impact falling on Northern Ireland. The effect is to slightly overstate the impact on Scotland and other parts of Great Britain, bearing in mind that Northern Ireland accounts for 3 per cent of the UK population.

4 In Scotland’s case, where only a limited range of 2011 Census data has so far been published, the working age population figures for each authority are an estimate based on the overall population from the 2011 Census and the age distribution of the population in 2010 from the mid-year population estimates. In the rest of Britain the figures are all taken from the 2011 Census.

5 The main exceptions are a small minority (around 5%) of Housing Benefit recipients in the private rented sector, affected by the reforms to Local Housing Allowance, and a small number of adults of pensionable age who receive Child Benefit.

6 Scottish Local Government Forum Against Poverty and Rights Advice Scotland (2013) People, Councils, the Economy, 2nd edition: An assessment of the impact of proposed changes to the UK Benefits System on people, councils and the economy in Scotland.

7 Scottish Government (2013) UK Government cuts to welfare expenditure in Scotland.

8 Datazones are small geographical units with between 500 and 1,000 residents.

9 See C Beatty and S Fothergill (2013) Hitting the Poorest Places Hardest: the local and regional impact of welfare reform, CRESR, Sheffield Hallam University. The report can be accessed at www.shu.ac.uk/cresr

10 The figures here for Wales differ from those in a 2012 report by the Welsh Government (Analysing the impact of the UK government’s welfare reforms in Wales). The differences arise because the present report includes the impacts currently arising from the incapacity benefit reforms initiated by Labour, includes the impact of the 1 per cent up-rating, and excludes the shift from RPI to CPI for inflation up-rating. The present report also deploys more sophisticated methods for estimating the local impact of several of the reforms.

Back to top